The powerful explosion targeted a mosque in the Ghaziabad district of Kunar Province as worshippers were leaving after Friday Prayers.
Eight people were also wounded in the bomb blast.
Taliban militants claimed responsibility for the Friday attack.
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid said the bomb had been planted at the venue and was aimed at targeting government officials.
The incident is the latest in a string of deadly bombings that has claimed the lives of scores of people in Afghanistan over the past few days.
A roadside bomb hit a mini-van carrying Afghan civilians, leaving at least 19 people, including 7 women and 5 children, dead.
On Tuesday, around 55 people lost their lives when an explosion targeted a mosque in the capital, Kabul. Four others were also killed in a similar attack in Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh Province.
Both explosions targeted people mourning the martyrdom of the third Shia Imam, Imam Hussein (PBUH).
Pakistan's Lashkar-e-Jhangvi terrorists later claimed responsibility for the attacks, which drew condemnation from Muslim leaders and the United Nations.
The terrorist group, which belongs to the Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan, has carried out several bomb attacks in Pakistan, but had never before claimed responsibility for attacks in Afghanistan.