Highlighting the most prominent Zionist terrorist movements and organizations Part II
Story Code : 268911
Although the three organizations have retained their regulated independence, but the cooperation among them has been crystallized during this period and have taken an institutional form when their leaders signed with the end of the World War and with the participation of the Jewish Agency, a tripartite agreement; its items included:
1- The “Haganah” enters the military battle against the British authorities. Thus, this is how the “Hebrew Disobedience” Movement was established.
2- Both “Lehi” and “Etzel” organizations should not implement their combat plans but only after the approval of the leadership of the “Disobedience Movement”.
3- The “Lehi” and “Etzel” organizations are to implement the combat plans being ordered by the movement’s leadership.
4- Not only discussing the proposed operations pretty nearly; the delegates of the three organizations should also meet in fixed sessions or as needed to discuss during these meetings the plans at the political and practical levels.
5- After taking the initial approval regarding the proposed operations, the experts of the three organizations are to discuss the details of the implementation of these operations.
6- The need to obtain the approval of the leadership of the “Disobedience Movement” to apply it to the operations that are being implemented against the properties such as seizing weapons from the hands of the Britons or having access to funds.
7- The agreement between the three organizations is based on the term “It is an order, do it”.
8- If the “Haganah” was ordered one day to abandon the war against the Britons, the “Lehi” and “Etzel” organizations continue their war.
Thus, the so-called “Hebrew Disobedience” Movement has been formed and was represented by the leadership of the “United Resistance Movement” to oversee the executive matters.
This leadership included representatives from the “Haganah” such as (Israel Galilei and Moshe Sneh), from “Etzel” (Menachem Begin) and from “Lehi” (Abraham Hiturn and Ialina Moore). The terms of the agreement clearly show the joint responsibility of the Zionist terrorist organizations, and the “Haganah” sought to deny this historically.
The “Haganah” Organization
“Haganah” is a Hebrew word meaning (defense), it is an Israeli military outpost organization. It was founded in Jerusalem in 1920 to replace the “Keeper” organization.
The “Haganah” was associated in the beginning with the “union work”, then with the “Mapai” and the “Histadrut” parties. In 1929, the “Haganah” participated in the suppression of the Palestinian uprising, attacked the Palestinian homes and properties, and organized marches to provoke the Palestinian citizens and to terrorize them. It also contributed to confiscating the lands, especially through inventing (the fence and tower) method for the construction of the Zionist settlements in one day. The relations between the “Haganah” and the authorities of the British military rule passed through a lot of tension, and things often reached to collision, and it carried out many of the terrorist operations against the British forces. However, with the appointment of “Charles Wingate”, an officer of the British intelligence in Palestine in 1936, the atmosphere of cooperation returned between the “Haganah” and the British occupation forces, where “Wingate” oversaw the composition of the night special teams and the mobile ones, and coordinated the activities between the British intelligence and the intelligence department in the “Haganah” known as “Shai”. At the same time, the “Haganah” and the British forces cooperated in the formation of the police guarding the Jewish settlements, and this was the key role played by the organization since its inception; most of its members were members of the “Haganah”.
With the end of World War II, the conflict erupted again, and the “Haganah” participated with “Lehi” and “Etzel” in sabotaging the British installations, and blowing up the bridges and railway lines, and this was called “the Hebrew Resistance Movement”. With the establishment of the Jewish state, the “Haganah” was the nucleus of the Zionist army.
The “Etzel” Organization:
“Etzel” is an abbreviation for the “National Military Organization in the Land of (Israel)”, and is also known as “Irgun”. It is a Zionist military organization founded in Palestine in 1931 from the union of the members of the “Haganah”, who have left the mother organization and an armed group from “Albetar”. The organization has been built on the ideas of “Vladimir Jabotinsky” that call for “the need for processing armed Jewish power for the establishment of a state, and for the right of every Jew to enter Palestine”. The logo of the organization is represented in a hand holding a gun and underneath it the phrase (only this way) is written.
In 1937, the head of “Etzel” at that time “Abraham Yathoume” reached an agreement with the “Haganah” to unite the two organizations, and this led to a split in the “Etzel”, where less than half of the 3,000 members agreed on the “Yatthoume’s” proposal, while the majority saw that there is a need to preserve the independence of the organization.
In 1940, a second split took place when Avraham Stern’s group members left, who later formed the “Lehi” organization, due to differences on the position to be taken on the conflicting forces in World War II. The members of the “Stern” considered that there is a need to strengthen the Nazi Germany to defeat Britain, and then to get rid of the British military rule over Palestine, so that to become possible to establish a Zionist state. However, the mother organization tended to cooperate with the British forces, particularly in the field of intelligence.
The terrorist operations carried out by “Etzel” against the Palestinian farmers have had a big role in forcing a lot of these farmers to leave the country. The organization also resorted to attack the civilian Arab cars, and carried out in collaboration with “Lehi”, being blessed by the “Haganah”, the “Deir Yassin” famous massacre on April 9/1948.
The “Lehi” Organization:
“Lehi” is an abbreviation of the Hebrew term (Lohamei Herut Israel) meaning the “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel). It is a Zionist military secret organization founded by “Avraham Stern” in 1940 after he left along with number of his supporters the “Etzel” group, who have named themselves at first “Irgun Tzvai Leumi in (Israel)” and this means the “National Military Organization in Israel”, to differentiate themselves from the name of the mother organization, and then the name was later changed to “Lehi”.
Since 1942, the organization became also known by the name of its founder “Stern” after his death at the hands of the British authorities in Palestine.
The differences that led to the split were related to the position that should be taken regarding the conflicting forces in World War II; “Etzel” tended to cooperate with Britain, while the “Stern” group preferred to stand by the Nazi Germany to get rid of the British occupation of Palestine and then to establish the Zionist state.
Despite the fact that “Lehi” saw that “Hitler” was a murderer of the Jews and nothing more, but it justified to itself - as said by “Stern”- (asking the help of the slaughterer who coincidentally became the enemy of our enemy).
“Lehi” considered that “joining the army of the British (enemy) is a crime, and sought in return to reach an agreement with the Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy, but it has failed to reach its goal”.
The organization carried out some sabotage operations against British installations in addition to looting operations, as happened when robbing the “Palestinian British bank” on September/1940.
This activity reached its peak by the assassination of the British Commissioner in Cairo, the British Lord “Moen”, and all this has resulted in clashes between “Lehi” and “Etzel” on the one hand, and between them and the “Haganah” on the other hand. The “Haganah” cooperated with the British authorities in hunting the members of the “Lehi” and arresting them.
In fact, the “Lehi” organization have faced several conflicts and internal upheavals that began months after its formation as the withdrawal of two of its most prominent founders, “Hanuch Kalai” and “Benjamin Zrona”, who have joined “Etzel” and then have left it later and handed themselves over to the British authorities.
The second crisis came after the killing of “Stern”; the British authorities have arrested dozens of members of the organization and extracted important confessions that include the names of their colleagues and the arms caches.
These crises were almost going to liquidate the organization completely, but it regained strength when a group of “Albetar” led by “Yisrael Schiff” joined it after their migration from Poland to Palestine in 1942, as well as after two of its leaders “Yitzhak Shamir” and “Eliyahu Giladi” have succeeded in escaping from prison in 1942. Then, “Nathan Ferdiman” and “Lillian Moore”, along with 19 leaders of the “Lehi”, were also able to escape from the prison in 1943. However, the conflict broke out again between “Shamir” and “Giladi” because of differences of opinion regarding the orientations of the organization, and it was resolved in favor of “Shamir” who planned a plot to assassinate his rival in the “Holon sands”.
With the end of World War II, “Lehi” participated with the “Haganah” and “Etzel” in the operations of anti-British authorities within the so-called the “Hebrew Resistance Movement”.
The activity of “Lehi” continued, even after the movement was suspended in 1946. It also participated in the attack on the Arab villages and properties and carried out with “Etzel” - with the blessing of the “Haganah” - the famous massacre of “Deir Yassin” on April 9/1948.
After the announcement of the establishment of the Zionist entity, “Lehi” was dissolved along with other military organizations and incorporated into the Zionist occupation army.
The T.N.T. Organization “Terror against Terror”:
The “Terror against Terror” organization and its meaning in Hebrew is (Terror Neged Terror) was known as (T.N.T). It is one of the most Zionist aggressive terrorist, racist, and cruel organizations.
“Terror against Terror” was founded on May/1975, under the pretext of addressing the (Arab terrorism), and it has announced its existence by burning a “bus” transporting Arab passenger in the neighborhood “Wadi Joz” in Jerusalem, and then it sent letters threatening Arab leading personalities in the West Bank, warning that it will liquidate them if the (Palestinian sabotage) operations continued against the Zionists.
The organization was marked as being highly affected from the ideological side by the fascist and racist ideas and invitations, launched by the similar Zionist movements as the “Kach” movement and the “Gush Emunim” movement. This is the link from the organizational side with the first movement, and evidence suggests that their elements were mostly of the American Jews who have been groomed organizationally and military trained before being shipped off to perform their duties in the occupied Arab territories, and this matter has been sponsored by the terrorist “Meir Kahane”, who was once been arrested when he was holding a banner on which he wrote I support [T.N.T].
Some of the cadres of this organization consider it the secret military wing that complements the work of the public political activity of the (Kach) racist fascist movement to face (terrorism). What is meant here is facing the Palestinian resistance to the occupation with similar terror. The posters were spread in the streets of the occupied territories and the doors of commercial shops have been covered by posters that include the slogan: (A life for a life).
After investigating them, many elements of this organization claimed responsibility for several terrorist operations, the most important was the attempt to assassinate three Arab mayors (Bassam Al-Shakaa, Karim Khalaf, and Ibrahim Al-Tawil) in 1980, the blast that blew the entrance of the “Zahra Cinema” in Jerusalem on February 1982, putting explosive devices in the mosques in Hebron on December/1983, placing explosives in various parts of the occupied territories, and others.
The “Gush Emunim” Movement:
“Gush Emunim" its meaning in Arabic is the (bloc of the faithful). It is a settlement-oriented movement that has religious (pantheistic membership) preambles demanding the maximum. It did not take a partisan framework for itself, but has chosen to be a popular movement not committed but only to maintaining the “land of (Israel)”. Despite its clear religious pantheistic orientation, there was an overlap between its religious and national orientation.
The movement was established officially at the end of fall 1947 after a group of the members of the National Religious Party “NRP” have rebelled against the party’s leadership after it agreed to join the coalition government of “Yitzhak Rabin”. However, the actual establishment of the movement was after the war of June 1967.
From the standpoint of the “Gush Emunim” movement, retaining the territories occupied after 1967 by the Jewish state is a divine issue that can never be omitted by humanitarian and/or practical considerations. Although this organization talks about reviving the Jewish life in all areas, most of its activities focused on the settlement operations and escalating them so as not to become possible to return the West Bank to the Palestinians; it was trying to translate the Zionist de facto policy into a solid physical presence through the establishment of the settlements.
The “Kach” Movement:
“Kach” is a Hebrew word meaning (thus); it is the name of the Zionist movement that have a racist fascist tendency and has formulated its slogan as follows: “A hand holding the Torah and another one holding the sword”, underneath this slogan the Hebrew word “Kach” is written. This means that the only way to achieve the Zionist hopes is the Torah and the sword (i.e. the armed violence and the biblical preambles). In fact, these are echoes of some of the words of “Jabotinsky”.
The “Kach” movement was one of the most important organizations known in the history of the Jewish state. It emerged at early seventies by the terrorist Rabbi “Meir Kahane”, and adopted a system of Nazi ideas that threaten the Arabs and call for their expulsion. It practices in confronting them the harshest forms of oppression, racial discrimination, and terrorism.
The “Kach” movement includes a group of terrorists with rich history of criminality, including “Eli Hziv”; he is a non-Zionist Jew and was working as a soldier in Vietnam and then became a Jew and settled in occupied Palestine. He committed a murder and was put on trial for murdering his neighbor and possessing a weapon illegally; he was nicknamed the (wolf) or the (killer). He was killed during commando attacks.
“Yoel Lerner” was among the founders of the so-called (the Association of Defense); he was arrested in 1975 on charges of trying to assassinate the American minister “Henry Kissinger”, and then was arrested again in 1982 on charges of organizing a team of boys and girls for attacking Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Also, “Yossi Dayan”, was arrested in 1980 on charges of attempting to assassinate an Arab taxi driver. He left the “Kach” movement because of his feud with the “Kahane” on power.
The group also includes “Richter Jews”; he was investigated by the police on suspicion of his involvement in killing one of the members of the Peace Now movement. However, “Meir Kahane” remained to be the most important figure of the movement, which was circulating based upon his character, and he was (its fundamental manifestation).
The “Kach” supporters were mostly from the poor social disgruntled class who complain against the ruling establishment, hate, and show severe hostility to the Arabs. The solid nucleus and leadership of “Kach” include elements migrating from the United States that have religious extremism, show hostility to the gentiles, and dream of the (Messianic) salvation. It has very active branches in United States that provides it with financial support and its need of weapons and supplies it with new members after being trained on weapons.
The supreme leadership of the “Kach” is composed of three members; they are “Baruch Marzil”, the head of the movement, “Noam Qderman”, its spokesman, and “Tiran Pollack”, the Chairman of the Commission “Security on the roads”. “Baruch Marzil” was the Secretary of the “Kach” movement in Knesset, the spokesman for the movement, and the most prominent assistant of “Meir Kahane”. He commented on the massacre committed in the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron, praising its slaughterer “Baruch Goldstein”, by saying: “He is not crazy, he is a great man, and he is a friend”.
“Shmuel Ben-Shai” committed on the same incident, saying: “Gold Stein was a real man and has done a heroic job. He has always said that things must be taken by hand and the Arabs should be killed”.
The Movement to “Stop the withdrawal in Sinai”: The Movement to “Stop the withdrawal in Sinai” was formed in the spring of 1981 in order to develop activities to stop withdrawal from the usurped “Yamit” on the impact of (the Egyptian Zionist Convention). Elements of the advocates of the “Gush Emunim” movement, as well as the group of “Yesha” and “Tahya”, have joined its ranks. Those elements feared that the withdrawal from the usurped “Yamit” would be an example that would devote the idea of withdrawing from the settlements built in the West Bank and Gaza. Its ranks also included a number of rabbis who were committed to the principle that says: “Yamit” is an integral part of the land of (Israel) and abandoning it would hamper the divine salvation severely”.
The first declared objective of the movement was to seek through mass mobilization to disrupt the process of withdrawal from the usurped “Yamit”. However, as it was impossible to achieve this goal, the movement carried out the achievable severe clashes between the Israeli government and rapists who were opposing the withdrawal, where the memory of the psychological and political shock resulting from this incident led to precluding any intention to have a future government and changing it into evacuating the Jewish settlements anywhere.
The movement has tried to collect a million signatures on a petition protesting against withdrawing from the usurped “Yamit”, but it did not succeed in this... Then its failure was capped by performing the basic task assigned to it, namely paralyzing the process of implementing the special item to return Sinai to the Egyptian sovereignty in the agreement signed between the governments of Egypt and (Israeli).
The Movement to “Return to Sinai”: This movement has been formed by several members of the movement to “Stop the withdrawal in Sinai”, as well as by members of the “Gush Emunim” movement and the “Yesha” group, including prominent figures as the Rabbi “Moshe Evnger”, “Penny Ktosevr”, and the Rabbi “Haim Druckman”, who were able to infiltrate houses vacated by the rapists of the “Yamit” and occupied them before they leave them after a peaceful intervention by Zionist soldiers without weapons.
The target of the movement was as its name suggests i.e. returning the Zionist governance of Sinai, but it has failed to achieve this goal, what formed a real shock for the rapists and the members of the “Gush Emunim” movement particularly and for the fundamentalist Jews in general, who were surprised when the government of “Menachem Begin” have neglected the “land of (Israel)” and sought to rally to prevent him from taking this serious decision that was considered unprecedented, but their efforts were in vain.
The beginning of the activity of the movement to “Return to Sinai” came up with two very important events in the history of the Jewish fundamentalism:
The first: was the death of the Rabbi “Zvi Yehuda Cook”, who has had enormous impact on the Jewish fundamentalists.
The second: was waging the war on Lebanon by the “Likud” bloc led by “Ariel Sharon” - Zionist war minister at that time- and its activity was wilting day after day due to the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai.